世界贸易和国际贸易外文文献及中文翻译世界贸易和国际贸易外文文献及中文翻译

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WorldTradeandInternationalTradeIntodayscomplexeconomicworld,neitherindividualsnornationsareselfsufficient.Nationshaveutilizeddifferenteconomicresourcespeoplehavedevelopeddifferentskills.Thisisthefoundationofworldtradeandeconomicactivity.Asaresultofthistradeandactivity,internationalfinanceandbankinghaveevolved.Forexample,theUnitedStatesisamajorconsumerofcoffee,yetitdoesnothavetheclimatetogrowanyoritsown.Consequently,theUnitedStatesmustimportcoffeefromcountriessuchasBrazil,ColombiaandGuatemalathatgrowcoffeeefficiently.Ontheotherhand,theUnitedStateshaslargeindustrialplantscapableofproducingavarietyofgoods,suchaschemicalsandairplanes,whichcanbesoldtonationsthatneedthem.Ifnationstradeditemforitem,suchasoneautomobilefor10,000bagsofcoffee,foreigntradewouldbeextremelycumbersomeandrestrictive.Soinsteadofbatter,whichistradeofgoodswithoutanexchangeofmoney,theUnitedStatereceivesmoneyinpaymentforwhatitsells.ItpaysforBraziliancoffeewithdollars,whichBrazilcanthenusetobuywoolfromAustralia,whichinturncanbuytextilesGreatBritain,whichcanthenbuytobaccofromtheUnitedState.Foreigntrade,theexchangeofgoodsbetweennations,takesplaceformanyreasons.Thefirst,asmentionedaboveisthatnonationhasallofthecommoditiesthatitneeds.Rawmaterialsarescatteredaroundtheworld.LargedepositsofcopperareminedinPeruandZaire,diamondsareminedinSouthAfricaandpetroleumisrecoveredintheMiddleEast.Countriesthatdonothavetheseresourceswithintheirownboundariesmustbuyfromcountriesthatexportthem.Foreigntradealsooccursbecauseacountryoftendoesnothaveenoughofaparticularitemtomeetitsneeds.AlthoughtheUnitedStatesisamajorproducerofsugar,itconsumesmorethanitcanproduceinternallyandthusmustimportsugar.Third,onenationcansellsomeitemsatalowercostthanothercountries.Japanhasbeenabletoexportlargequantitiesofradiosandtelevisionsetsbecauseitcanproducethemmoreefficientlythanothercountries.ItischeaperfortheUnitedStatestobuythesefromJapanthantoproducethemdomestically.Accordingtoeconomictheory,Japanshouldproduceandexportthoseitemsfromwhichitderivesacomparativeadvantage.Itshouldalsobuyandimportwhatitneedsfromthosecountriesthathaveacomparativeadvantageinthedesireditems.Finally,foreigntradetakesplacebecauseofinnovationorstyle.EventhoughtheUnitedStatesproducesmoreautomobilesthananyothercountry,itstillimportslargenumbersofautosfromGermany,JapanandSweden,primarilybecausethereisamarketforthemintheUnitedStates.Formostnations,exportsandimportsarethemostimportantinternationalactivity.Whennationsexportmorethantheyimport,theyaresaidtohaveafavorablebalanceoftrade.Whentheyimportmorethantheyexport,anunfavorablebalanceoftradeexists.Nationstrytomaintainafavorablebalanceoftrade,whichassuresthemofthemeanstobuynecessaryimports.Internationaltradeistheexchangeofgoodsandservicesproducedinonecountryforgoodsandservicesproducedinanothercountry.Thereareseveralreasonsforit.Thedistributionlfnaturalresourcesaroundtheworldissomewhathaphazardsomenationspossessnaturaldepositsinexcessoftheirownrequirementswhileothernationshavenone.Forexample,Britainhaslargereservesofcoalbutlacksmanymineralssuchasnickel,copper,aluminumetc,whereastheArabstateshavevastoildepositsbutlittleelse.Inthecultivationofnaturalproductsclimateswhereasothers,suchascitrusfruits,requireaMediterraneanclimate.Moreover,somenationsareunabletoproducesufficientofaparticularproducttosatisfyalargehomedemand,forexample,Britainandwheat.Thesearethereasonswhyinternationaltradefirstbegan.Withthedevelopmentofmanufacturingandtechnology,therearoseanotherincentivefornationstoexchangetheirproducts.Itwasfoundthatitmadeeconomicsenseforanationtospecializeincertainactivitiesandproducethosegoodsforwhichithadthemostadvantages,andtoexchangethosegoodsfortheproductsofothernationswhichandadvantagesindifferentfields.Thistradeisbasedontheprincipleofcomparativeadvantage.Thetheoryofcomparativeadvantage,alsocalledthecomparativecosttheory,wasdevelopedbyDavidRicardo,andothereconomistsinthenineteenthcentury.Itpointsoutthattradebetweencountriescanbeprofitableforall,evenifoneofthecountriescanproduceeverycommoditymorecheaply.Aslongasthereareminor,relativedifferencesintheefficiencyofproducingacommodityeventhepoofcountrycanhaveacomparativeadvantageinproducingit.Theparadoxisbestillustratedbythistraditionalexamplethebestlawyerintownisalsothebesttypistintown.Sincethislawyercannotaffordtogiveupprecioustimefromlegalandtypingmatters.Butthetypistscomparativedisadvantageisleastintyping.Therefore,thetypisthasarelativecomparativeadvantageintyping.Thisprincipleisthebasisofspecializationintotradesandoccupations.Atthesametime,completespecializationmayneveroccurevenwhenitiseconomicallyadvantageous.Forstrategicordomesticreasons,acountrymaycontinuetoproducegoodsforwhichitdoesnothaveanadvantage.Thebenefitslfspecializationmayalsobeaffectingbytransportcostsgoodsandrawmaterialshavetobetransportedaroundtheworldandthecostofthetransportnarrowsthelimitsbetweenwhichitwillproveprofitabletotrade.Anotherimpedimenttothefreeflowofgoodsbetweennationsisthepossibleintroductionofartificialbarrierstotrade,suchastariffsorquotas.Inadditiontovisibletrade,whichinvolvestheimportandexportlfgoodsandmerchandise,thereisalsoinvisibletrade,whichinvolvestheexchangeofservicesbetweennations.NationssuchasGreeceandNorwayhavelargemarinefleetsandprovidetransportationservice.Thisisakindofinvisibletrade.Whenanexporterarrangesshipment,herentsspaceinthecargocompartmentoraship.Theprudentexporterpurchasesinsuranceforhiscargosvoyage.Whileatsea,acargoisvulnerabletomanydangers.Thus,insuranceisanotherserviceinwhichsomenationsspecialize.GreatBritain,because
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