外文翻译----JSP应用框架外文翻译----JSP应用框架

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毕业设计(论文)外文翻译原文1外文翻译原文及译文学院信息科学技术学院专业计算机科学与技术班级学号姓名毕业设计(论文)外文翻译原文2JSPapplicationframeworksWhatareapplicationframeworksAframeworkisareusable,semicompleteapplicationthatcanbespecializedtoproducecustomapplicationsJohnson.Likepeople,softwareapplicationsaremorealikethantheyaredifferent.Theyrunonthesamecomputers,expectinputfromthesamedevices,outputtothesamedisplays,andsavedatatothesameharddisks.Developersworkingonconventionaldesktopapplicationsareaccustomedtotoolkitsanddevelopmentenvironmentsthatleveragethesamenessbetweenapplications.Applicationframeworksbuildonthiscommongroundtoprovidedeveloperswithareusablestructurethatcanserveasthefoundationfortheirownproducts.Aframeworkprovidesdeveloperswithasetofbackbonecomponentsthathavethefollowingcharacteristics1.Theyareknowntoworkwellinotherapplications.2.Theyarereadytousewiththenextproject.3.Theycanalsobeusedbyotherteamsintheorganization.Frameworksaretheclassicbuildversusbuyproposition.Ifyoubuildit,youwillunderstanditwhenyouaredonebuthowlongwillitbebeforeyoucanrollyourownIfyoubuyit,youwillhavetoclimbthelearningcurveandhowlongisthatgoingtotakeThereisnorightanswerhere,butmostobserverswouldagreethatframeworkssuchasStrutsprovideasignificantreturnoninvestmentcomparedtostartingfromscratch,especiallyforlargerprojects.OthertypesofframeworksTheideaofaframeworkappliesnotonlytoapplicationsbuttoapplicationcomponentsaswell.Throughoutthisarticle,weintroduceothertypesofframeworksthatyoucanusewithStruts.TheseincludetheLucenesearchengine,theScaffoldtoolkit,theStrutsvalidator,andtheTilestaglibrary.Likeapplicationframeworks,thesetoolsprovidesemicompleteversionsofasubsystemthatcanbespecializedtoprovideacustom毕业设计(论文)外文翻译原文3component.Someframeworkshavebeenlinkedtoaproprietarydevelopmentenvironment.ThisisnotthecasewithStrutsoranyoftheotherframeworksshowninthisbook.YoucanuseanydevelopmentenvironmentwithStrutsVisualAgeforJava,JBuilder,Eclipse,Emacs,andTextpadareallpopularchoicesamongStrutsdevelopers.IfyoucanuseitwithJava,youcanuseitwithStruts.EnablingtechnologiesApplicationsdevelopedwithStrutsarebasedonanumberofenablingtechnologies.ThesecomponentsarenotspecifictoStrutsandunderlieeveryJavawebapplication.AreasonthatdevelopersuseframeworkslikeStrutsistohidethenastydetailsbehindacronymslikeHTTP,CGI,andJSP.AsaStrutsdeveloper,youdontneedtobeanalphabetsoupguru,butaworkingknowledgeofthesebasetechnologiescanhelpyoudevisecreativesolutionstotrickyproblems.HypertextTransferProtocolHTTPWhenmediatingtalksbetweennations,diplomatsoftenfollowaformalprotocol.Diplomaticprotocolsaredesignedtoavoidmisunderstandingsandtokeepnegotiationsfrombreakingdown.Inasimilarvein,whencomputersneedtotalk,theyalsofollowaformalprotocol.Theprotocoldefineshowdataistransmittedandhowtodecodeitonceitarrives.WebapplicationsusetheHypertextTransferProtocolHTTPtomovedatabetweenthebrowserrunningonyourcomputerandtheapplicationrunningontheserver.ManyserverapplicationscommunicateusingprotocolsotherthanHTTP.Someofthesemaintainanongoingconnectionbetweenthecomputers.Theapplicationserverknowsexactlywhoisconnectedatalltimesandcantellwhenaconnectionisdropped.Becausetheyknowthestateofeachconnectionandtheidentityofeachpersonusingit,theseareknownasstatefulprotocols.Bycontrast,HTTPisknownasastatelessprotocol.AnHTTPserverwillacceptanyrequestfromanyclientandwillalwaysprovidesometypeofresponse,eveniftheresponseisjusttosayno.Withouttheoverheadofnegotiatingandretainingaconnection,statelessprotocolscanhandlealargevolumeofrequests.Thisisonereasonwhythe
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